Legal Framework and Institutional Mechanisms
Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Ratification in 1981. Ratification of the Optional Protocol in 2002. Main reference document for equality between men and women. Through its ratification or accession to it the States are legally bound to adopt all necessary measures, including special temporary measures and laws, in order for women to fully enjoy all their human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995). The signatory countries take responsibility for the implementation of the Platform for Action, in which 12 critical areas of concern for the advancement of women are defined.
Political Constitution (2008). All people are equal and shall enjoy the same rights, obligations and opportunities. (Art. 6) It promotes responsible maternity and paternity and maternal and paternal co-responsibility regarding child-rearing. (Art. 70) The State shall develop and implement policies aimed at achieving equality between women and men – through a specialized mechanism in accordance to the law –, shall incorporate gender perspective into its plans and programs and shall provide technical assistance for their mandatory application within the public sector. (Art. 333) It recognizes unpaid self-sustenance and human care work carried out within households as productive labor. The State shall promote a labor regime that works harmoniously alongside human care needs and facilitates the existence of adequate services, infrastructure and working hours. It shall especially provide childcare and care for people with disabilities as well as other necessary services, in order to allow working people to perform their work-related activities, and it shall encourage co-responsibility and reciprocity between men and women in relation to domestic work and family responsibilities.
National Council for Gender Equality (2008). Goals: 1. To mainstream gender perspective at public-policy and planning-instruments' level; 2. To ensure rights' realization as well as the incorporation of gender perspective in plans, programs, projects and public policies, formulating binding mandatory recommendations and proposals; 3. To transform existing cultural patterns within the public sector and society at large, regarding discriminatory roles and stereotypes pertaining women and people of diverse sex-gender conditions; all this with the aim of contributing to the eradication of sexism, heteronormativity and gender-based violence.